When you edit, do not erase what other students have written. Just add to the page!!

Make sure your information is saved somewhere in case we have to repost.

Alfred Alder
Born: February 7, 1870
Birth place: Penzing, Austria
Death: May 28, 1937
Religion: Jewish
Nationality: Austria

Back ground:
Born the second child of six, he was not able to walk until the age of four, because of rickets. At five he developed pneumonia and was diagnosed to probably not survive. His experience as a child greatly affected him and resolved him to become a doctor himself. To that e could help suffering caused by sudden illness and disease. Alder struggled through school, failing at math; when suggested to dropout. His father dismissed the statement, and Alder was determined to excel and show his teacher that he was wrong.
His experiences help shape his theories of personality development, especially his belief that the basic human drive. From an initial state of inadequacy or later termed “inferiority”, to a “superiority” or self-actualization.

Professional Education and Early Work:
Graduating from the University or Vienna, in 1895 Alder successfully earned his M.D. In the course of his work as a physician he made study of the interplay between what he termed “Organ deficiency” (Illness, physical handicaps, etc.) and an individual’s personality and self-image. In 1902 he received a hand written invitation to join Freud’s inner circle, But from different perceiving of a person led to the split of them in 1911. Alder along with several other members from Freud’s school formed his own group.

Notable Years and Experiences:
His work looked at the individual’s level of functionality and fulfillment as a part of a group. He served as a physician, first with the Austrian Army at the Russian front, and then in a children’s hospital, witnessing the horrifying results of war and social conflict. Later developing a technique that focused on assessing the individual’s drive (“Superiority”, later called self-perfection), degree or activity, and there “Social Interest”. Through careful questioning, he would lead his patient through the process of seeing the matter of their own problem for themselves. Alder advised that the analyst must adopt and maintain a non-authoritarian relationship with the patient. Also that egalitarianism and engaged empathy should form the basis of their interaction.

Later Years:
He brought his first influences to America in 1926, by written work and lectures at Columbia University. Then in 1934 the Nazis forced him to close his clinics, because he was Jewish. Moving permanently to the United States; bringing his family with him. In May of 1937 while visiting Aberdeen, Scotland where he was to lecture at the University, he collapsed suddenly in the street and died.

Albert Bandura

Background Information
Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925 in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. He was the youngest child and only boy among six children. His parents immigrated to Canada; his mother emigrated from Ukraine, and his father emigrated from Poland. Religion was not a focus in the Bandura household, but studying and school was. Albert’s father taught him how to speak three languages, Polish, Russian, and German. All through his elementary and high school years, Albert Attending the only school in his town; it was made up of 20 students, and 2 teachers. The school was very short on learning resources; all of his high school mathematics classes were comprised of a single textbook. Since Mundare was so small, Albert’s parents encouraged him to take summer internships outside of his town at companies to get different work and educational experience.

Professional Education and early work
After high school, Bandura attended the University of British Colombia in Vancouver. Since he was short of money, Bandura had to work morning shifts at a woodwork plant in Vancouver before class everyday. To pass the time between work and class, Bandura would go to the library and study psychology books. The books got him very interested in psychology and decided to take psychology courses. In 1949, Bandura graduated University of British Colombia with the Bolocan Award in Psychology.
After college, Bandura attended the University of Iowa for his graduate study. At UI, Bandura set his sights on the theoretical epicenter, and following in the footsteps of Kenneth Spence and Clark Hull, who were working on the Social learning theory. In 1951, Bandura received his M.A. degree, and in 1952 he received his Ph.D. degree in Clinical Psychology, under the direction of his teacher, Arthur Benton.
In his early work, Bandura challenged the Hullian Theory; he felt, “Cultures transmitted social mores and complex competencies primarily through vicarious experience”.

Notable Years and Experience
Bandura was most interested in aggression in children, and how to test certain children in order to find proper treatment for their aggression. He believed aggression explains three aspects:
-aggressive patterns of behavior are developed
-what provokes people to act aggressively
-Whether they are going to resort to an aggressive behavior pattern on future occasions
His most famous experiment, the Bobo doll experiment, explained these aspects.
Bandura went on to write a number of books, all explaining his Social Learning Theory and how social learning is a central role in society. He wrote his first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959. Bandura continues to teach psychology at the University of Stanford.


Diana Baumrind


-Born Diana Blumberg on August 23, 1927 to Hyman and Mollie Blumberg, an intellectual, middle-class Jewish couple that was living in New York City.
-She was the eldest of two daughters.
-She was heavily influenced by her father and uncle who were the children of immigrants and were both militant atheists and dedicated Marxists.

Professional Education and Early Work

-Received and A.B. in Psychology and Philosophy in 1948 from Hunter College.
-Went on to graduate school at the University of California at Berkeley where she studied developmental, clinical and social psychology until her graduation in 1955.
-At UCB she worked with David Krech, Hubery Coffey, and Timothy Leary
-Immediately after graduation she began working at Cowell Memorial Hospital as the staff psychologist and then went on to lead some projects for the US Public Health Service.
-In 1960, she joined the Institute of Human Development at University of California, Berkeley, where she began her career as a research psychologist.

Notable Years and Experiences

-Best known for her study of parenting styles in dealing with developmental Psychology
-Most famous article was: "Some Thoughts on the Ethics of Research: After Reading Milgram's 'Behavioral Study of Obedience.'"
-In her research she discovered that there are four styles of parenting. They are

· Indulgent- These parents are more responsive than demanding and try to avoid confrontation. Their children are generally sociable and creative, but have a habit of being aggressive and not dealing well with limits.
· Authoritarian- These parents create an extremely rigid and non responsive environment. They are generally extremely intrusive. Their children have low self esteem and tend to be moody.
· Authoritative- These parents are best described as a mixture of the above parenting styles. They set up rules and standards, but are reasonable and tend to have more supportive disciplinary methods.
· Uninvolved parents neither regulate nor respond to their children and are often neglectful. Their children of ten engage in substance abuse or high risk activities.

-Has also done work in the areas of family socialization, developmental competence, moral development, adolescent health and risk-taking, and research ethics.
-Though officially retired from the University of California, Berkeley, she is still writing and doing a limited amount of research.


Paul Broca
Background of the Individual:

  • Pierre Paul Broca [28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880] was a French physician, anatomist, and anthropologist. He was born in Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde.

Professional Education:

  • Broca's early scientific work dealt with the histology of cartilage and bone. He also studied cancer pathology, the treatment of aneurysms, and infant mortality.
  • Early on in life in France, at the tender age of 17 he started his monumental life as a prosector, a person with the special task of preparing a dissection for demonstration, and he eventually became Secretary of the Societé-Anatomique. During this time we wrote up over 500 presentations on the human mind and body, none of which were considered mediocre.
  • He wrote extensively on Darwinism, then known as transformism in France.

Notable Years and Experiences:

  • Broca is best known for his research on Broca's area [named after the psychologist himself], a region of the frontal lobe in the brain.
  • In 1862 he demonstrated the brain lesion of his first patient who had suffered from aphémie [renamed aphasia later by Armand Trousseau (1801-1867)]. From this presentation and from other ongoing observations he concluded that the integrity of the left frontal convolution was responsible and necessary for articular speech (David Ferrier 1843-1928) is responsible for naming this region "Broca’s convolution- the motor speech area.”
  • The discovery of Broca's area revolutionized the understanding of speech production. New research has found that dysfunction in the area may lead to other speech disorders such as stuttering and apraxia of speech.



Mary Calkins

Mary Calkins was born on March 30th, 1863 in Hartford, Connecticut. She was the oldest of five children. When she was 17, she moved to Massachusetts with her family. She lived here the rest of her life. Her father, knowing the education that women received, decided to design and supervise Mary's education at this time. In 1882, Calkins entered into Smith College. After studying for a year, her sister died, causing her to take a year off from college and study on her own. In 1884 she returned to Smith College to graduate with a concentration in classics and philosophy.

Professional Education and early work:
After she graduated her father landed her an interview with the dean of Wellesley College so that she could be a tutor. She worked in the Greek department for three years. A very famous professor in the Psychology department offered her a very good position in the department as long as she studied psychology for a year prior to beginning the job. However, she faced two problems meeting this condition. One being that there weren’t very many psychology departments in 1890, and the other being it was unlikely that she would be accepted to the program because she was a woman.
Calkins applied at Harvard because she wanted to hear the lectures of James and Royce. These two men said it was okay that she come and listen to their lectures but President Eliot of the university refused because he didn’t want to upset the other students. Calkins father wrote a petition to Harvard requesting that his daughter be granted admission to these lectures. In addition the President of Wellesley College wrote a letter stating that this program suited her needs. Then in early October 1890 Harvard approved the petition. Calkins was permitted to attend the seminars of James and Royce.
In addition to studying with James and Royce, Calkins also studied experimental psychology with Dr. Edmond Sanford at Clark University.

Notable years and experiences:
In 1895, Calkins returned to Wellesley College where she was made an Associate Professor of Psychology and Philosophy and was promoted to Professor in 1898. She also wrote four books, including, An Introduction to Psychology (1901); The Persistent Problems of Philosophy (1907), which went through five editions; and The Good Man and the Good (1918).
After 1900, Calkins' major contribution to psychology was the development of a system of self-psychology. The field dealt with topics such as space and time consciousness, emotion, association, color theory and dreams. Her theory held that the conscious self is the central fact of psychology. In the field of philosophy she acknowledged Royce's idealism as the main influence to her study.
In 1905, Calkins was elected president of the American Psychological Association. Thirteen years later, she was elected president of the American Philosophical Association. In addition to the presidencies, these achievements brought her a number of honors. In a 1908 list of leading psychologists in the US, Calkins was ranked 12th on the list. Columbia University gave her a Doctor of Letters degree and Smith College gave her a Doctor of Laws degree. They both also offered her jobs in which she declined.
After teaching for 42 years, Calkins retired from Wellesley College in 1929 with the title of Research Professor. Less than a year later, she died from inoperable cancer.





By Haley Martin

Chomsky grew up in Philadelphia during the 1930’s, in an area that he refers to as the “ Jewish Ghetto.” His primary language is English but he also learned how to read and speak Hebrew. His parents forbid Yiddish in their home, although their first language was Yiddish. Chomsky attended Oak Lane Country Day School, then Central High School, and finally he attended Harvard University to complete his doctorate. When he went to Oak Lane Country Day School, he studied linguistics and philosophy that filters into his work in psychology. Chomsky was influenced by intellectual professors who argued at his uncle’s newsstand late at night.

professional education & early work
Chomsky went to college in Pennsylvania studying linguistics, and went to earn his doctorate at Harvard where he focused on linguistics and studied a little on Hebrew. After his schooling, he went on to teach at MIT and he is still there as the Institute Professor and has been teaching there for 55 years and counting.

notable years & experiences
Chomsky has won the Kyoto Prize and the Helmholtz Medal for his research in linguistics. Chomsky has theories that children learn to speak partly because it is natural to them and part of it is learned. Chomsky says that if you don’t learn another language from birth to puberty, it will be extremely difficult to learn another after that. If you learn another language before puberty, then you have a greater chance of being able to pick up another. Chomsky is spending his later years teaching at MIT as previously stated.






Background Information

Dorthea Dix was born on April 4, 1802 in Hampden, Maine. Her mothers name was Mary Bigelow Dix and father Joseph Dix, a Methodist preacher. When Dorthea was a child her family had to move to Vermont because of the war of 1812, which was the start of an abusive childhood. Dorthea’s father taught her to read and write and when she went to school she was way ahead of everyone. Next they moved to Massachusetts and her mother got sick and Dad started to drink all the time. Dorthea and her three siblings went to live with their grandmother. Dorthea had to help her grandma care for her 2 brothers and she was only 12. Next Dorthea had to move in with her aunt because her grandma didn’t think she was ladylike. She had to stay with her aunt for about 4 years but then returned to be with her brothers and grandma.

Pro Education and Early Work
- Received scholarships to go to school to become her passion of being a teacher.
- In the fall of 1816, at age 15, Dorthea started teaching 20 girls ages 6-8 and ran this class for 3 years
- At the age of 19 Dorthea opened a more formal school for older children in Boston in a building on her Grandmothers property.
- Worked in a jail to help the mentally ill and then visited jails all over to investigate and find out more about helping the mentally ill
- By the late 1840s Dix was creating a plan to assure proper facilities and treatment for the insane poor in the long term, but it was vetoed
Notable Years and Experiences
- Dorthea has been described as one of the most effective advocate of humanitarian reform in American mental Institutions during the 19th century
- Dorthea published 5 books from 1824-1829.
- During the civil war Dorthea was an army nurse
- Dorthea has her own stamp with her picture that was made on September 23, 1993.
- Dorthea wrote school textbooks and a hymn book.
- Helped create a plan to help the mentally ill in jails



Hermann Ebbinghaus

Background of Hermann
The Hermannater was born in Barmen, Germany to a pair of Lutheran parents on January 24, 1850 and died on February 26, 1909. His parents deeply cared for him, and wanted him to succeed in life. He grew up a happy and loved kid. When he turned 17 he went to the University of Bonn. While attending he became infatuated with the ideas of philosophy. He wanted to spend his time in peace studying, but his studies were interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War, in which he served in the Prussian army. After the war he finished his studies, and was awarded his doctorates at age 23.

Professional Education and Early work
Hermann had is professional education formally as a graduate from the university of Bonn, but while attending he also studied at the universities of Berlin and Halle. After college and the war, Ebbinghaus for his PhD. He moved to Berlin for several years and then went to France and England. While staying in England he taught at a small school and also came across a psychological book that dealt with the human mind. You could argue that this is what spurred him to conduct his memory experiments. A few years later of teaching at the English schools and deriving thoughts about the mind and memory, he went to the University of Berlin to become a professor. In Berlin he founded the psychological journal “zeitschrift fur Physiologie und Psychologie der sinnesorgane” (The psychology and physiology of the sense organs). He also founded two psychological laboratories in Germany. His very thoughts cost him the seat of head of philosophy, He was still thought of as a great teacher, and speaker. He eventually drifted away from his colleagues and went to the University of Breslau, in Poland. In Poland he published a good elementary school textbook and before he could do a lot more, he died of pneumonia. He was 529 years old when he died. An American psychologist said later that it was a great loss to psychology.

Middle years and Experiments
Hermann was a professor during most of his life during his middle years. He taught in Germany and Poland, and thought about the brain and psychology a lot. To prove that higher mental processes aren’t hidden from view, he wanted to make an experiment. He used simple acoustic encoding and maintenance rehearsal for which a list of words could have been used. A problem was that people’s prior knowledge and people’s understanding with words would interfere with his results. So with the regular sound of a metronome he had the same voice infection, and read out the syllables; he was able to make his experiment work. The only issue now was just how tedious the experiment was. He was big on process of learning and forgetting. He developed many experiments talking about how this works. He also came up with the serial position effect, which talks about how big are chances are on remembering an object after being recalled. He has a book out and it is still popular today amonf the psychology world.

Gustav Fechner
Early years
  • Birthday: April 19, 1801- November 28, 1887
  • Place of Birth: Germany
  • Lutheran
  • Very intelligent; learned Latin by the age of five
  • He entered college at Leipzig at the age of 16
  • He entered his M.D. at 21, but never practiced because his interested shifted towards physics and mathematics.

Education/Early Work
  • One of his first jobs was translating physics and chemistry from French to German
  • During this time he also made some research contributions to the realm of electricity, which was new at this time
  • This research allowed him to be a professor at Leipzig in physics
  • First book on psychology: Nanna, oder Über das Seelenleben der Pflanzen. It explained the complications between the relationships of body to mind.
  • His breakthrough came when he discovered that sensations could be subjected to exact measurement by assuming that jnds[1] were equal in magnitude

Notable Years and Experiences
  • Founded the science of psychophysics.
  • Most important, he devised an equation to express Weber's law[2] .
  • His book, Elements of Psychophysics, is considered to be the first book on experimental psychology.
  • He developed three important methods:
    • 1st method: Method of limits. Designed to test absolute thresholds.
    • 2nd Method: Method of Constant Stimuli. When sound of varying intensities of stimuli are presented at random order and the subject indicates whether it can be heard or not
    • 3rd Method: Method of Adjustment. The subject directly varies the intensity until it appears to be at threshold
  • Fechner’s efforts resulted in the creation of a program of research and a set of methods that enabled psychologists after him to see that psychological phenomena could be subjected to scientific methodology.
  • His works paved the way for William Wundt and his development of the “New Psychology”.

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was born "Sigismund Schlomo Freud" on May 6, 1856. His father, Jacob (41), and mother, Amalie (21), had 8 kids, which Sigmund was the first born of. His parents favored him over the rest of his siblings. Despite their poverty, they sacrificed everything to give him a proper education. In 1865, he entered the Leopoldstadter Kommunal-Realgymnasium prominent high school where he was an outstanding student and graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors. After planning to study law, Freud joined the medical faculty at University of Vienna to study under Darwinist Prof. Karl Claus. In 1885, Freud traveled to Paris on a traveling fellowship to study with Europe's most renowned neurologist and researcher of hypnosis, Jean-Martin Charcot.
After opening his own medical practice, specializing in neurology, Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886. Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways: he simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind's organization and internal operations and a theory that human behavior both conditions and results from how the mind is organized. This led him to favor certain clinical techniques for trying to help cure mental illness. He theorized that personality is developed by a person's childhood experiences.
The most significant contribution Freud made to Western thought were his arguments concerning the importance of the unconscious mind in understanding conscious thought and behavior. Freud called dreams the "royal road to the unconscious". Freud developed his first topology of the psyche in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) in which he proposed that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought; its contents could be accessed with a little effort.
In 1932, Freud received the Goethe Prize in appreciation of his contribution to psychology and to German literary culture. One year later (January of 1933), the Nazis took control of Germany, and Freud's books were prominent among those burned and destroyed by the Nazis. Freud's four sisters perished in Nazi Concentration Camps.

John Garcia

Background: John Garcia was born on June 12, 1917. He grew up with his parents on their farm. John became a pilot for the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, but flying made him sick, so he became an intelligence specialist for the rest of his time there. He was a lecturer or professor at many schools including Psychology at the University of Utah.

Professional Education & Early Work: John Garcia went to school at Santa Rosa Junior College and received a bachelor’s degree. Then, in 1965, he got his master’s degree and Ph. D at the University of California-Berkeley. His first job after college was in San Francisco, California at the U.S. Nava Radiology Defense Lab. Here, he studied the reactions the brain has to radiation, experimenting with animals.

Notable Years & Experiences: John Garcia discovered something called conditioned taste aversion or the “Garcia Effect,” which allows an organism to identify foods they have eaten that have caused them to be sick or are harmful. This prevents the organism from getting sick. Garcia received many awards for his work including the Howard Crosby Warren Medal and the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. In 1983, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and now has more than 130 publications.

Michael Gazzaniga
Background of the Individual
· Born December 12, 1939
· In high school, set up a laboratory in the garage to study the enzymes of rabbit muscle
· Received a summer fellowship from Roger W. Sperry at Caltech, where most scientists were working on split-brain research

Professional Education & Early Work
· 1961 – graduated from Dartmouth College
· 1964 – received a Ph.D. in psychobiology from the California Institute of Technology

Notable Years & Experiences
· Professor of psychology at University of California, Santa Barbara; heads the new SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind
· Founded the Centers for Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of California, Dartmouth, and Davis
· Director of the Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience
· President of the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute
· Director of the MacArhtur Law and Neuroscience Project.
· a major focus of his research has been an extensive study of patients that have undergone split-brain surgery that have revealed lateralization of functions across the cerebral hemispheres

· http://mmp.planetary.org/scien/gazzm/gazzm70.htm
· http://www.ask.com/wiki/Michael_Gazzaniga
· http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~gazzanig/

Carol Gilligan

  • Carol Gilligan was born in NYC into a Jewish family on November 28th, 1936.
  • Born to William Friedman (lawyer) and Mabel Caminez (nursery school teacher)
  • Only child
  • For her undergraduate degree she attended Swarthmore College where she earned an English literature degree.
  • She is married to James Gilligan, M.D.
  • She is a woman, which might explain why she got involved in her area of study.
  • She grew up as a Jew in the Holocaust era

Professional Education and Early Work:
  • She got her master’s degree in clinical psychology at Radcliffe College
  • Ph.D. in social psychology at Harvard University
  • Began teaching at Harvard University and worked there for 9 years
  • She studied under Kohlberg – MORAL DILEMMA

Notable Years and Experiences
· Gilligan focused upon women’s psychology and girls’ development
· She studied at Harvard under Kohlberg, a (now) famous psychologist.
· Gilligan used the clinical and social psychological points of view when gathering evidence to support her theories.
· “Women have differing moral and psychological tendencies than men.” – Gilligan, http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/gilligan.html
· Women are more caring and focus upon relationships where as men focus upon rules and justice.
· Mainstream psychology stated that men and women weren’t any different psychologically, but Gilligan changed that with her experimental and theoretical evidence.
· Taught at University of Cambridge for two years (after teaching at Harvard).
· Then taught at New York University at the School of Education and School of Law.
· Gilligan has been criticized simply because her experiments and results are difficult to replicate.


G Stanley Hall

· G. Stanley Hall was born February 1, 1844.
· He grew up on a farm in Ashfield, Massachusetts.
· For college, he was initially enrolled at Williston Academy, but later transferred to Williams College. He started out studying Theology, but was inspired to pursue Psychology after reading Wilhelm Wundt's Principles of Physiological Psychology.
· He went on to Harvard to earn his doctorate in Psychology, and later went on to be the first American to be given a Ph.D. in Psychology.
Professional education and early work:
· After Harvard, he began his career by teaching English and philosophy at Antioch College in Ohio.
· He was named a Professor of Psychology and Pedagogics at Johns Hopkins University, in 1882, and started the first American Psychology Lab there.
· After Johns Hopkins, he became the president of Clark University, and stayed there for the next 20 years.
· In 1892, Hall was elected as the first president of the American Psychological Association.
· Also, in 1909, he invited a group of psychologists, including Sigmund Freud, to speak at Clark University.
Notable Years and experiences:
· Hall is most well-known for his work with Childhood Development.
· He was also interested in Evolutionary Psychology, with Darwin's theory of evolution and Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory as his biggest inspirations.
· He used these ideas to further examine childhood development, and studied the inheritance of behaviors.
· He was also very influential in the growth of early psychology. Being the first American with a Ph.D. in Psychology, as well as the president of Clark University, he supervised 30 out of the 54 first Ph.D.’s in Psychology in the US.

Harry Harlow

· Born October 31st 1905 in Fairfield, Iowa.
· His parents were Mabel Rock and Alonzo Harlow Israel. He was the second youngest of 4 brothers.
· After a year at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, he then was accepted into Stanford by passing a test.
· Harlow first declared himself an English major, but then changed to a psychology major due to horrible grades.
· Harlow studied largely under Lewis Terman, the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ Test. Terman helped shape Harlow’s future.
· After receiving a Ph.D. in 1930, Harlow changed his name from Israel to Harlow.
· After completing his doctoral dissertation, Harlow became a professor at the University of Wisconsin- Madison.
· His most significant accomplishment for departmental development was his persuasion of the University was to Construct the Primate Laboratory.
· Harlow received a few awards. He included the Howard Crosby Warren Medal, the National Medal of Science and the Gold Medal from the American Psychological Foundation.
· Most of his well-known experiments took place between 1957 and 1963. One was, Harlow removed baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers, and offered them a choice between two surrogate mothers, one made of terrycloth, the other of wire. Harlow concluded from this experiment that the need for contact comfort was stronger than the need to explore.
· It was found in this experiment that the young monkeys clung to the terrycloth mother even if she did not it provide them with food, and that the young monkeys chose the wire surrogate only when it provided food.
· The importance of these findings is that they disagreed both the then, common teaching advice of limiting or avoiding bodily contact in an attempt to avoid spoiling children and the insistence of the then the dominant behaviors school of psychology that emotions were negligible.
· Harlow also concluded that nursing strengthened the mother-child bond because of the intimate body contact that it provided
· Next experiment was from around 1960 onwards; Harlow and his students started publishing what they saw on the effects of partial and total social isolation. Partial isolation involved raising monkeys in bare wire cages that allowed them to see, smell, and hear other monkeys, but provided no opportunity for physical contact. Total social isolation involved putting monkeys in isolation chambers that did not allow any and all contact with other monkeys.

Ernest Hilgard

Born July 25th 1904, Ernest Hilgard was born in Belleville Illinois and was the son of a physician. He showed an early interest in science. Ernest Hilgard developed hypnosis as a medical tool, and excelled in using hypnotherapy to heal pains a patient has, as well as improving the research on hypnosis itself as a field of study.

Hilgard was originally interested in Engineering, not Psychology. In 1924 he received a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois. He later then decided to pursue psychology at the University of Yale, where he received his PH.D in 1930. At the University of Yale, he met his wife Josephine Rohrs, a fellow student there. Three years later, Hilgard became a part of the faculty of psychology at Stanford University in California. He also studied conditional human responses, such as extensive research with the human eye lid. His work showed a relation between voluntary and involuntary responses, and he won the Warren Medal in Experimental Psychology in 1940. By the 1950’s, Hilgard was so respected in his field, that he was offered to design a mental health program with the American Social Science Research Council. The assignment came with a 15 million dollar grant. Hilgard won many awards in the field of science, gold medals from the American Psychological Foundation in 1978, The National Academy of Education, and The American Philosophical Society.

In Hilgard’s later years of his life, he wrote books on the subject of Psychology, such as “American Psychology in Historical Perspective” in 1978, and “Psychology in America: A Historical Survey” in 1987. He also lectured students on the history of psychology and offered his personal recollections of early contributors, including Ivan Pavlov. His wife died in 1989, leaving him with his son Henry and his daughter Elizabeth Jecker. Hilgard served as president of the American Psychological Organization, and in 1991, the American Psychologist, the group’s publication, recognized him as one of the top ten most important contemporary psychologists. In 1994, the association presented him with its award for outstanding lifelong contribution to psychology. Hilgard also had many interests that didn’t involve academics or research. He contributed to community causes and human rights. Ernest himself died on October 22nd 2001 at the age of 97 due to cardiopulmonary arrest. He was a hypnosis pioneer, and a great example of an extraordinary researcher and psychologist.

David Hubel

  • Born in 1926 in Windsor, Ontario. All grandparents were Canadian except for paternal grandfather, who emigrated as a child from Bavaria.
    • This grandfather became a pharmacist and achieved some recognition for his being the first to suggest mass producing the gelatin capsule.
  • Both parents were born in Detroit, Michigan. Father was a chemical engineer and after receiving a job across the river in Ontario, moved there.
    • Hubel has duel citizenship, in Canada and America
  • In 1929 they moved to Montreal where Hubel grew up. He went to Strathcona Academy in Outremont.
  • Gives much thanks to his father for answering his plethora of questions, and to his mother for her encouragement of the sciences. Also to his teachers at Strathcona, specifically his history teacher.
  • As a boy he enjoyed chemistry as well as electronics.
    • He soon gave up on electronics, as nothing he made ever worked.
    • With chemistry, he created a potassium chlorate and sugar mixture that made a rocket and created a hydrogen balloon that ended up cities away.
  • He went to McGill College and studied honors mathematics and physics. On a whim, he applied and was accepted into medical school, though he had no particular aptitude or enjoyment of it.
  • Hubel spent his summers at the Montreal Neurological Institute, where his fascination with the nervous system began.­­
  • In 1954 Hubel was drafted into the army as a doctor.
    • Was lucky enough to be placed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, where he first began to intently research.
    • While there, worked with M.G.F. Fuortes and Robert Galambos in neurophysiology, Walle Nauta in neuroanatomy, Joseph Brady and Murray Sidman in experimental psychology and John Mason in chemistry.
  • In 1958 he moved to Wilmer Institute in John Hopkins Hospital. Here he began collaboration with Torsten Wiesel and began work on his most famous discoveries dealing with the processing of the visual system.
  • In 1959 Hubel and the rest of the nine families he worked with at John Hopkins made the move to Harvard Medical School in Boston, where they became the Department of Neurobiology.
  • “The Hubel and Wiesel experiments greatly expanded the scientific knowledge of sensory processing. In one experiment, done in 1959, they inserted a microelectrode into the primary visual cortex of an anesthetized cat. They then projected patterns of light and dark on a screen in front of the cat. They found that some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others responded best to another angle. Some of these neurons responded differently to light patterns than to dark patterns. Hubel and Wiesel called these neurons "simple cells." Still other neurons, which they termed "complex cells," detected edges regardless of where they were placed in the receptive field of the neuron and could preferentially detect motion in certain directions. These studies showed how the visual system constructs complex representations of visual information from simple stimulus features.”
  • Hubel, along with Wiesel and Roger Sperry, received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1981 for their work in the development in the process of the visual system and laying the foundation for visual neurophysiology.
  • Hubel continues to work in visual physiology today.
William James
William James, today known as the father of American psychology, was born on January 11, 1842 in New York City. His father was very interested in philosophy and theology and accordingly made sure his sons had a rich, well-rounded education. This included traveling to Europe frequently and attending the finest schools. This no doubt gave Henry his interest in literature and art. Early in his life he decided he wanted to be a painter. Under the guidance of William Morris Hunt, he pursued painting for a year. But soon after he abandoned painting and attended Harvard to study chemistry and medicine. Unfortunately he found no interest in his study and grew depressed. Despite earning a M.D. degree in medicine, he never practiced it. Only after moving to Germany he found an interest in Psychology.
James spent most of his academic career teaching at Harvard. He taught subjects he was schooled in like Biology, physiology, and medicine, but was mostly drawn to the study of the human mind. In 1875 he taught his first experimental psychology class at Harvard and was a part of a group that eventually formed called The Metaphysical Club. In this club, James discussed issues of psychology with many other minds who would eventually become some of the most prominent minds in the study of psychology.
As for his own ideas of psychology, James wrote much about the idea of Pragmatism. According to pragmatism, the truth of an idea can never truly be fully proven thus we as humans can only take it for what it’s worth. He also contributed to the James-Lange Theory of Emotion. This theory suggests that an event triggers a physiological reaction, which we then interpret. According to this theory, emotions are caused by our interpretations of these physiological reactions. Some of his contributions to psychology are not as obvious. During his time teaching at Harvard he influenced many of the great minds like Mary Whiton Calkins, Edward Thorndike, G. Stanley Hall and John Dewey to pursue psychology. James has truly left a legacy that defines him as one of the most influential doctors of modern psychology.

Sources: http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/jamesbio.htm
George Miller

Born George Armitage Miller on February 3, 1920, in Charleston, West Virginia. He is still living and is 90 years old.
George Miller has taught at many universities including Harvard, Rockefeller University, and Princeton University. His main field was cognitive psychology, especially with language and communication.
He is known for writing the article “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”, which said that the adult memory span is around seven plus or minus two. It was written in 1956. He said there are limits for our processing of information. For numbers, the memory span is longer than in words.
He was also the founder of WordNet. It was a project that maps the way the mind stores and uses knowledge. With the help of students and professors at Brown University, Miller created Simpli which was an early form of Google.
Received National Medal of Science for his work.

http://www.servinghistory.com/topics/George_Armitage_Miller http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Armitage_Miller

Jean Piaget
- Background -
Jean William Fritz Piaget was born August 9, 1896 in Switzerland to Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson. As a child Piaget found interest in nature, and biology. At age eleven his notes of a rare-albino sparrow were published. He even helped classify Neuchâtel's Natural History Museum, which led him to study shellfish. At the age of fifteen he was offered a job at a Natural History Museum in Geneva, though he declined.
- Professional Education and Early Work -
Piaget received the majority of his education from the University of Neuchâtel, but also studied at the University of Zurich. He became ill after one year at school, and went into the mountains to recuperate. Once back at school, he wrote down all of his thoughts. After he graduated, Piaget moved to Paris where he taught at an all boy’s school. While in Paris he worked at the Binet laboratory with Theodore Simon. He helped mark their famous intelligence tests, and it is here where he realized that young children consistently answered the same questions wrong, where as they grew older, they seem to know the right answer.
- Notable Years and Experiences -
Young children became the focus of many of his studies. Piaget is most famous for his Theory of Cognitive Development in which he suggests that all children go through four stages of development - sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages. The sensorimotor stage is between birth and two years old where children learn through interaction with physical features that surround them. During the preoperational stage from age two to age seven, the child has most motor skills, but still cannot reason and think abstractly. The concrete operations stage is from age seven to eleven in which children can solve problems within their head. The formal occupational stage is from eleven to fifteen, and by this time the child is nearly fully developed. Piaget was able to observe this from the growth of his three children, one boy and two girls, from wife Valentine Châtenay, who he met as one of his student – co-workers. He continued to receive honorary degrees. He died September 16, 1980 after living 84 years of a highly successful life.

Carl Rogers
· Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago.
· He was the fourth of six children.
· His father was a civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and Christian.
· He could already read before kindergarten, so his education started in the second grade.
· At the age of 12, Carl moved to a farm approximately 30 miles west of Chicago.
· He grew up with a strict upbringing- many, many chores.
· Carl became very independent and self-disciplined.
· He attended the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major, but shortly after switched to religion to study ministry.
· Carl was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for an entire six months. This broadened his view and made him second guess his basic religious views.
· Against his parents’ wishes, he married Helen Elliot and moved to New York City. There he attended the Union Theological Seminary (a famous liberal religious institution.)
· Carl switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University and received his Ph.D. in 1931.
· With background clinical work at Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, he started developing his own approach.
· In 1940, he was offered a full professorship at Ohio State and in 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy.
· He is an author of sixteen books and more than 200 professional articles. The most well-known books that he wrote are: On Becoming a Person, Client Centered Therapy, Freedom to Learn, A way of Being, Carl Rogers on Personal Power, and Becoming Partners: Marriage and Its Alternatives.
· In 1951, his major work was published: Client-Centered Therapy. This outlines his basic theory.
· He accepted a research position in La Jolla, California in 1964. There he provided therapy, wrote and gave speeches.
· Carl Rogers’s lifetime of experimental work and research focused on demonstrating the psychological conditions for allowing open communication and allowing individuals reach their full potential. He did not practice the traditional psychoanalysis. He developed client-centered psychotherapy, which recognizes “each client has within him or herself the vast resources for self-understanding, for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes, and self-directed behavior—and that these resources can be tapped by providing a definable climate of facilitative attitudes.”
· His last decade alive was devoted to applying his theories in areas of national conflict. He traveled the world.
· He brought people from all over the world together: in Belfast, Ireland, he brought Protestants and Catholics together, in South Africa, blacks and whites, in the United States, consumers and providers in the health field.
· Carl Rogers passed away in 1987.
· The American Psychology Association’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award was given to him the first year it was given out. A few years after he received the American Psychology Association’s Distinguished Professional Contribution Award.

B.F. Skinnner

· Background of the Individual
o Born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania to Grace and William (a lawyer) Skinner in March 20, 1904 – he then died on August 18, 1990 and is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts (due to leukemia)
o He had a brother, Edward, who died aged sixteen due to a cerebral hemorrhage
o He initially wanted to be a writer as a career when he attended Hamilton College, a religious school, in New York
§ He wrote for the school paper but disagreed with the religious tendencies of the newspaper
§ Later on school-related stuff
· Then later attended Harvard University in 1926 after receiving his B.A. in English literature (he received his Ph.D in 1931 and continued to research there until 1936)
· Then taught at University of Minnesota at Minneapolis
· Later went to Indiana University to teach (chaired the psychology department there from 1946-47
· Finished off career as a professor at Harvard in 1948
o He was an atheist
o Married in 1936 to Yvonne Blue
§ They have two kids: Julie and Deborah (both daughters)
· Professional Education & Early Work
o At age 24 enrolled in Harvard’s Psychology Department
§ Took on William Crozier as a mentor - he was a chair of the Physiology Department
§ Decided to study “the animal as a whole” as opposed to studying the innards of one’s conscious
o He started rebelling and performing experiments on his own free will
§ Built his own contraptions to analyze rats
§ Described his early life experiences in A Case History in Scientific Method
§ Invented several contraptions for experimental study during his earlier years
· Cumulative recorder
o Used to record data from experiments graphically
· Air crib
o Alternate name: baby tender
o Kept the crib well-ventilated and easily cleanable
· Operant conditioning chamber
o A device used to record the movements and behaviors of test subjects (organism such as rats and pigeons)
· Teaching machine
o Allowed him to record his teachings over machine
· System80
o Another form of a teaching machine that gave the students feedback
o Had improved controls and technological functions
· Pigeon Guided Missile
o Developed during Project Pigeon
o Pigeons were used to direct missiles and bombs for WWII
o Started developing an operational definition for his theory of behaviorism
§ Detailed these early studies contributing to his theory in The Behavior of Organisms
· Notable Years and Experiences
o Developed his own theory of behaviorism: radical behaviorism
§ Tries to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences
§ Reinforcement serves as the process that ingrained certain behaviors throughout your life: things are based on how you’ve experienced them prior to things
o Project Pigeon
§ Major experiment in which he attempted to train pigeons to guide missiles and bombs (for WWII planes)
§ Discovered that pigeons were more reactive and adaptive than rats - they could learned to concentrate despite the noise of the missiles/war noises around them
§ Described in Cumulative Record
· Briefly touched upon in The Behavior of Organisms
o Won many different awards
§ 1968 - National Medal of Science (from President Lyndon B. Johnson)
§ 1971 - Gold Medal (of the American Psychological Foundation)
§ 1972 - Human of the Year Award
§ 1990 - Citation of Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology
· Bibliography
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner
o http://www.bfskinner.org/BFSkinner/AboutSkinner.html
o http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/skinner.htm
o http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm

Robert Rescorla

Robert Rescorla received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1966. He is also the Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and co-creator of the Rescorla-Wagner Model.
The Rescorla-Wagner Model is a model that is meant to condition. The animal is supposed to learn the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. The model is done with trials; in some trials something is present and in others it is not. The prediction for the unconditioned trial is found by combining all associated strengths in the conditioned trial that were present. The model has been successful and popular because it has little competition, can produce successful outcomes, provides heuristic value, and has free variables.
Allan R. Wagner was Rescorla’s counterpart in the Rescorla-Wagner Model. Wagner graduated from the University of Iowa and received his Ph.D. in 1959. Wagner and Rescorla’s main interest in the Rescorla-Wagner Model was behavioral study of elementary learning processes, especially Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training. The main point of the Rescorla-Wagner Model was to answer these questions: What are the conditions that produce the learning? What are the makings of that learning, and how does that learning plot into the manners of the organism?
Rescorla is currently employed in the Psychology Department at the University of Pennsylvania. Rescorla’s main interests are animal learning and behavior, behavioral neuroscience, and memory and learning. The methods Rescorla applies in his class are: fear conditioning, flavor-aversion learning, instrumental reward training in rodents, and autoshaping in birds. The studies involve the analytical use of second-order conditioning, sensory precondtioning, blocking, conditioned inhibition, and outcome revaluation. Rescorla’s ultimate goal is to provide a depiction and understanding of simple associative learning.

· http://www.med.upenn.edu/ins/faculty/rescorla.htm
· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescorla%E2%80%93Wagner_model
· http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Allan_R._Wagner
· http://www.psych.upenn.edu/people/rescorla

Edward Thorndike

Leyann Dahlgren


  • Born in Williamsburg, MA to Edward Roberts Thorndike, a Methodist minister and Abigail Ladd Thorndike (had three sisters)
  • Born on August 31, 1874
  • Was raised in a house of smart siblings – excellence was expected
  • Because his dad was a minister he was able to receive a good education
  • His family moved around frequently – he was shy and left not feeling at home anywhere
  • Was devoted to his studies, even as a young student
  • He married Elizabeth Moulton in 1900. They had four kids. He died on Aug 9, 1949 at the age of 75.
Professional Education and Early Work
  • Attended Wesleyan University from 1891 – 1895 and received his Bachelor's – studied English
  • Decided to attend Harvard where he “found his love for psychology”
  • Was influenced by William James at Harvard – listened to his lectures and decided to switch from English major to psychology
  • While at Harvard he began his research on the intelligence of animals with chicks
  • He then went to Columbia where he continued his animal intelligence research
  • At Columbia he worked with James Cattell
  • His thesis “Animal Intelligence, 1898 stated that the way to understand learning, and to solve psychology’s problems was through an experimental approach
  • He received his PhD for that thesis
  • He was influenced by Darwin, Herman Ebbinghaus, Sir Francis Galton, and Karl Pearson
  • In his early years teaching, and his early writings (Notes on Child Study, Principles of Teaching, Based on psychology, and Education: A first book) he mainly taught the ideas that others had established and he emphasized the importance of a scientific attitude
Notable Years and Experience

  • He went and taught at College for Women Western Reserve university in Cleveland for a year and then went to Columbia to teach psychology at Teacher’s College where he taught for the rest of his career
  • In Germany and America a “new” psychology was being developed. The “new” psychology laid out experimentally quantified directions that Thorndike incorporated into his “new” educational psychology.
  • Thorndike tried to get away from a mental psychology and worked with a more scientific psychology.
  • His general experiments were: to place a subject into a situation with a problem and to observe their behavior and put it in an quantitative form
  • Most famous experiment was Animal Intelligence – he worked with animals in a “puzzle box” trying to get out through trial and error
  • Led him to Law of Effect – when you respond to a stimulus and receive some form of satisfaction that response is strengthened and “stamped” in the brain, but when you respond and receive discomfort, that response is weakened
  • Led him to the idea that rewards are the key to learning



Margaret Floy Washburn


Margaret Floy Washburn (July 25, 1871 – October 29, 1939) was born in New York City and raised in Harlem by her parents. Her father was an Episcopal priest and her mother came from a very well off family in New York. At the age of 9 she moved to Ulster County, New York where her father became part of a parish there. In June 1886, she graduated high school at the young age of 15.

Professional Education & Early Work

The fall after her high school graduation, she began taking classes at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. Following her graduation from Vassar, she was determined to study under James McKeen Cattell at Columbia University. Columbia had yet to admit a woman as a graduate student so she was admitted only as an auditor. She did very well at Columbia and Cattell encouraged her to join the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell University, which she attended in 1892. At Cornell, her professor was E. B. Titchener and she was his first and only graduate student. She earned her Master’s degree from Vassar College, which came in 1893. The following year, in 1894, she was the very first woman to get a PhD within the psychology field and became part of the American Psychological Association.

Notable Years & Experiences

Within the first few decades of the 20th century, Washburn became a major figure in United States psychology. Although women weren’t able to have regular faculty jobs in the psychology departments at Universities, Washburn had many teaching spots at women’s colleges. Including Wells, Sage at Cornell, and University of Cincinnati. She was primarily known for her work that she did in Animal Psychology. She used her experiments in animal behavior to show her idea that mental events are important psychological areas for study. She included these thoughts in her book, The Animal Mind, which released in 1908. In 1916, Washburn created a motor theory in Movement and Mental Imagery. Her writings go for upwards of thirty-five years, and she wrote over 127 articles in her lifetime.

Sources: 1 2 3 4
Carl Wernicke
Carl Wernicke was born May 15, 1848 in Tarnowitz, Upper Silesia, which is now Tarnowskie Gory, Poland. He acquired his secondary education at the gymnasium in Oppeln, outside of Breslau. With great difficulty, his mother persuaded him to study medicine at the University of Breslau.
Professional Education and Early Work
He completed his basic medical education at the University of Breslau before undergoing specialist training in psychiatry as an assistant for Heinrich Neumann. While working with Neumann, Wernicke had the opportunity to spend 6 months in Vienna with Theodor Hermann Meynert. Shortly after his experience in Vienna, he published his first work on aphasia: Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex. In 1878 he established a private neuropsychiatric practice in Berlin. In 1885 he became associate professor of psychiatry and neurology at Breslau. In 1874, when Wernicke was 26 years old, he published Der aphasische Symptomenkompleks. His main concerns were both brain anatomy and pathology.
Notable Years and Experiences
In the year of 1873, Wernicke studied a patient who had been traumatized from a stroke. The man could hear, as well as speak, but he could hardly understand what was being said to him. Later on, Wernicke studied the portion of the brain known as “Wernicke’s Area”, which is sometimes referred to as the receptive language area; he named it sensory aphasia, which is now known as Wernicke’s Aphasia. A summary of the Theory of Aphasia: abnormalities could be localized to specific regions of the brain with each region contributing a relatively simple sensory-motor activity.
Five years after becoming an associate professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Breslau, Wernicke was awarded the department chair. Between 1897 and 1903, he published the three-part atlas des Giherns. Nineteen years after being awarded the department chair, Wernicke moved to the University of Halle to become a fulltime professor. Only one short year later, in 1905, he died from multiple injuries due to a biking accident.


Charles Darwin

By: Amy Sachse hour 2

I. Personal Background

Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England on February 12, 1809.
He was the son of a wealthy doctor and financer in society, Robert Darwin, and his wife Susannah Darwin.
He had five siblings.
Charles was baptized in the Anglican Church but he attended chapel with his mother and siblings at the Unitarian
Darwin’s love for collecting and natural history began when he attended Anglican Shrewsbury School.
He apprenticed as a doctor in 1825.
He attended the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother in 1825.

II. Profession Education and Early Work

Darwin’s father sent him to Christ’s College, Cambridge, for a Bachelor of Arts degree.
He wanted Darwin to become an Anglican parson.
He stayed at Cambridge for awhile and studied Paley’s Natural Theology.
The book he studied made an argument explaining adaptation as an act of God through laws of nature.
After graduation, Darwin wanted to study natural history on a two-year voyage.
He worked with John Stevens Henslow, Robert Edmund Grant, and Robert FitzRov.
He assisted Grant with his studies of the life of marine animals.
He went on the “Beagle Journey” in 1831 with FitzRoy.
On the journey he found fossils of extinct mammals.
He did missionary work in Tierra del Fuega.
He found mockingbirds in the Galapagos Islands that had slight differences from island to island.

III. Notable Years and Experiences

Darwin is most noted for the Theory of Evolution that says species change over time to adapt to their environment.
The Beagle Voyage was one of his most important experiences.
Theory is known as the Theory of Natural Selection.
His discoveries in the Galapagos were very important to his final theory.

"Charles Darwin | Naturalist." Lucidcafé Interactive Café and Information Resource. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. <http://www2.lucidcafe.com/lucidcafe/library/96feb/darwin.html>.

"Charles Darwin." Crystalinks Metaphysical and Science Website. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. <http://www.crystalinks.com/darwin.html>.

"The Scientists: Charles Darwin." Blupete. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. <http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Science/Darwin.htm>.